EUROPEAN HISTORY

BRITIAN

Britain’s population was a group of pagans, known as Celts.  They were under the rule of the Roman Empire prior to 450 A.D.  The Roman soldiers were recalled to Italy , ca. 450, leaving the inhabitants of Britain defenseless.  The Brits called upon the Saxons to protect them from the Picts and the Scots.  The Saxons were one of three German tribes living on or near the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic (Angles, Jutes, Saxons).  The majority of the Saxons were Christians.

This turned out to be a mistake on the part of the Brits.  Instead of just providing protection to them, the Saxons conquered them.  The Celts were pushed into the western and northern areas of Britain (Deven, Cornwall , Wales , Scotland and Ireland ).  The areas of Wales , Scotland and Ireland were considered the Celtic fringe.  The conquest of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons marks the beginning of the First Dark Age of Britain.

Britain was divided into seven (7) kingdoms by the Saxons.  The kingdoms within Britain were ruled by the following groups:

Saxons rule                                             Angles ruled                                          Jutes ruled
Essex                                                        East Anglia                                              Kent
Sussex                                                      Mercia
Wessex                                                     Northumbria

Each of these kingdoms was ruled by it’s own king.  In 829, all seven (7) kingdoms were united by Egbert , king of Wessex .  The rule of the Saxons ended with the Norman Conquest in 1066.

CRUSADES

There were a total of eight (8) crusades:  

1096      1st Crusade was led by Godfrey of Bouillon (later King of Jerusalem); his two brothers, Robert II, duke of Normandy;
                Robert
II , earl of Flanders; Raymond IV , earl of Toulouse, and Stephen, earl of Bolis
.
1146       2nd Crusade was led by Conrad III , emperor
 and Louis VII (the Young), King of France.  
1189       3rd Crusade was led by Frederick Barbarossa
; Philip II (Augustus), King of France; and Richard, King of England
1202       4th Crusade set out from Venice  
1217       5th Crusade led by Andrew III, King of Hungary
.  
1228       6th Crusade led by Frederick II, emperor
 
1248       7th Crusade led by S. Louis, King of France
 
1270       8th & last Crusade led by Louis IX, King of France
; and Edward, King of England

COATS-of-ARMS

Coat-of-Arms awarded to theses individuals, descriptions can be found in the main text:

1.       William Ludlow
2.       Hugh  de Courtney, Earl of Devon
3.      
Sir Andrew Luttrell of Dunster Castle
4.      
Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster
5.      
Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel
6.      
William de Echyngham
7.      
Humphrey de Bohun, VIII
8.      
Edward I, King of England
9.      
Sir John Maltravers
10.   
William Marshal l
11.   
Roger de Quincy
12.   
Sir Hugh Lutterell
13.   
Sir Maurice de Berkeley
14.   
Sir Thomas Berkeley
15.   
Sir Hugh de Courtenay, banneret

Humphrey de Bohun VIII

Hugh de Courtenay, Earl of Devon

Sir Andrew Luttrell of Dunster Castle

Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of Arnundel

John, Lackland, King of England

Roger de Quincy

Henry I, King of England

Williamde Echyngham

NORMAN CONQUEST

In 1066, William the Conqueror, invaded Britain and defeated ____ at the Battle of Hastings.  William was crowned king of all England on 25 Dec 1066.

William divided his conquered land among his followers.  He gave each man several small pieces of land in different areas of the country.  This was done so that no one man could amass enough power, in one centralized location to overthrow him.  

Under Norman rule feudalism developed.  Yet, some Saxon customs were retained, such as the appointment of Sheriffs.  There was a Sheriff appointed for each county.  It was his responsibility to collect taxes and to look after things for the King.

In 1085, William ordered that an inventory be taken of everything in England and what it was worth at that time and who owned it.  Among it’s pages are listed the values of such things as:  the noble’s horses, farming lands, teams of oxen, rivers, meadows, woods, watermills; also listed were the number of people who worked for each lord.

This inventory which took a year to collect, is commonly known as the Domesday Book.  The Domesday Book provided the first comprehensive look at life in Britain in 1085-1086.

FEUDALISM

This was a social system of rights and obligations based on land ownership.  Each district was ruled by a duke, count, or other noble. The noble's power was based on the land he held in feud.  The system of feudalism was established gradually, between the 8th and 11th centuries. Its beginnings can be traced to the breakup of the ancient Roman Empire.

On the ruins of the Roman Empire there arose small barbarian kingdoms.  Lacking a strong central government, each district had to look out for itself. The inhabitants of the land were at the mercy of invaders and marauding bandits.  People naturally sought the protection of their nearest powerful neighbor. In time of trouble his wooden blockhouse or stone castle served as a refuge for both the villagers and their flocks. The people had to pay for their protection. Money was scarce, however the noble was very willing to accept land instead as payment for protection. The former owner was allowed to use the land during his lifetime, and at his death it passed into the hands of his protector.

In time many nobles acquired more land than they were able to manage. They began to grant land to tenants, this land was held in feud, and each holding was a fief. The tenant thus became a vassal of the lord and took an oath to follow him in war and perform other services. If a vassal failed to keep his promises, he was supposed to forfeit the land. In time the fief became hereditary, passing usually to the vassal's oldest son.

In theory all land belonged to the king or emperor. He was overlord, of the vassals who held land directly for him.  France was the land of its earliest and most complete development, but it was found in all the countries of Western Europe, in some form or other. It reached it’s peak from the 11th to the end of the 13th century.[i]

PLANTAGENET

This line of English Kings descends from Geoffrey , the Plantagenet , and ends with Richard II .  The Plantagenet line of kings founded the system of law and Parliament in England.  The Count Fulk V  of Anjou and Henry I  of England  (ruled 1100-1135) settled the conflict between their two countries by having their children marry.

KNIGHTS

According to Blacks Law Dictionary a knight[ii] is “the next personal dignity after the nobility.  

The training of a knight began at the early age of seven, when he would be taken from his father’s castle and sent to an overlord’s castle to learn the arts of the knight.  The skills that he would learn included:  horsemanship managing his lance; becoming accustomed to the weight of armour; wielding the great two-handed swords, axes and maces; participation in the physical amusements of his lord, such as hunting and tournaments.

His training would begin as a page.  As page he would learn to wait at the table, carve meat (a difficult and elaborate accomplishment), attend to the ladies, and act as a personal servant.  From page he progressed to a squire (at the age of 15).  As a squire, he learned the care of arms, horses, and attendance on knights in battle or tournaments.  After a sufficient period of time he would then be dubbed a knight.  All that was usually required was a blow from one who was a knight.  The new knight would them display his talents in horsemanship and arms.[iv]

Of the knights there are several orders and degrees.”  There are several ranks of knighthood:

1st           Knights of the Garter  The Most Noble Order of the Garter.  The highest order of English knighthood, ranking after the nobility.  This military order of knighthood is said to have been first instituted by Richard I, at the  siege of Acre, where he caused twenty-five knights who firmly stood by him to wear thongs of blue leather about their legs.  This order was later improved in 1344 and established on 23 Apr 1349 on the Feast of St. George the Martyr, by Edward I II and 25 Knight Companions. The emblem is a garter of blue and gold embroidered with the motto “Honi soit qui mal y pense” - translation:  Shame to him who thinks evil of it.  The number of members to this order of knights is limited to  the original number of twenty-five.[v]

Sir Walter Blount, Knight of the Garter
Sir Hugh de Courtenay,
(Founder) Knight of the Garter
 

2nd          Knight banneret

 

2rd          Knights of the Bath  They were so called from a ceremony of bathing the night before their creation.  This order was instituted by Henry IV, and revived by George I.

Sir Andrew Windsor, Knight of the Bath

4th           Knights bachelors  Through the lowest, are yet the most ancient, order of knighthood.  We find that King Alfred  conferred this order upon his son Athelstan .

Other degrees of knights include:

Knight of the Order of St. Michael and St. George
Knight of the Thistle - Established in 1687 by James II, King of England.  The Emblem is a collar of thistles and rue.
Knight of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Knight of the Shire of Derby:

                Sir William Blount, Knight of the Shire of Derby

Other Knights found within the lineage of Roger Ludlow :

Lord Maltravers, knighted 22 May 1306 (unknown order)
Sir Robert de Beaumont,
knighted 1122 (unknown order)

THE MAGNA CARTA[vi]

The Magna Carta (the great charter), granted by John , King of England , on 15 Jun 1215, to the barons, at Runnemede [Runnemede lies between Windsor and Staines].  became one of the greatest documents in history. It is regarded as the foundation of English constitutional liberty. Within its pages are found provisions for regulating the administration of justice, defining the temporal and ecclesiastical jurisdictions, securing the personal liberty of the subject and his rights of property, and the limits of taxation, and for preserving the liberties and privileges of the church.  It limited the power of the King and guaranteed that no Englishman could be imprisoned without a trial.  The king’s power to tax was limited by the requirement that he consult with his advisors prior to any increase in taxes.  It also was a pledge by the king that he would rule justly.  The Magna Carta was later, with some alterations, confirmed in Parliament by Henry III and Edward I .

There were twenty-five (25) signers of the MAGNA CARTA SURETY.  Those who signed the Great Charter of King John  swore to keep faithfully all the liberties and freedoms there in proclaimed and “to the best of their power, cause them to be kept by others.”  Of the twenty-five signers of the Magna Carta Surety, only seventeen (17) have living descendants.[vii]  Of those seventeen, the following are found among the ancestors of this compiler

Richard de Clare, Earl of Clare                                                     Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford
Scher de Quincy
, Earl of Winchester                                           Robert fitz Walter of Dunmow
Henry de Bohun
, Earl of Hereford                                                 John de Lacy, Constable of Chester, Baron of Holton  
Roger Bigod
, Earl of Norfolk                                                           Hugh Bigod, later Earl of Norfolk
  
In the Preamble of the Magna Charta there were Clerics and Nobles listed as Advisors of King John.  Of those, the following are found among the ancestors of this compiler:

William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke  
Alan of Galloway,  Constable of Scotland  

THE PEOPLE

Celts were the inhabitants of Britain.  They were darker in completion that the German peoples and they had black hair.  The Celtics were pagans.  They worshipped the trees, etc.  At the time of the Saxon invasion of Britain the Celts were pushed into the western and northern areas of Britain (Deven, Cornwall, Wales, Scotland and Ireland).  Wales, Scotland and Ireland were considered the Celtic fringe.  The Celts were a creative, skilled at music, poetry, metalwork, and textile making.  The Romans were amused by their custom of wearing pants or as the Celts called them “breeches”.  Normans are men from the North who arrived around 900 to the area now known as Normandy in France.  The Normans were sometimes called Vikings.  The Franks were warlike Germanic people who first settled along lower Rhine River as early as 3rd century AD.  Their kingdom included the greater portion of territory that now forms Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and western Germany.  Vikings are descendants of 4th & 5th century German Barbarians who moved North into what is now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.  By the beginning of the 5th century their population had expanded so, that their available resources were strained.  There was a need for “lebensraum” (living space).  They were known as plunders.  They ranged from the Bay of Bisque to the European Mountains, from the Arctic Circle, South to Sicily.  No one was safe from them.  The Vikings, led by Leif Ericson , had crossed the North Atlantic to North America before 1000 A.D.  The name of Lombard means “langobards” or long beards.  This group lived in what is now present day Italy.  The German Tribes consisted of the Anglo, Saxon, and Jutes.  These tribes were living on or near the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic around 400 A.D.

English Royal Hierarchy

I.         At the top of the hierachial ladder we find the Royal Family.  Members of this family are addressed as “Your Royal Highness”.  This would be the King, Queen, Princes, & Princesses.

II.        The next level in rank would be the Dukes and Duchesses.  In the English royal family the first son is given the title of Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall. Successive sons are awarded  Royal Duchies and those individuals who as  seen fit by the Royal family, are awarded Non-Royal Duchies. 

Royal Duchies:                                                                   Non-Royal Duchies: 
Duke of York                                                                         Duke of Norfolk  
Duke of Kent                                                                        Duke of Bedford  
Duke of Edinburgh                                                              Duke of Rutland  
Duke of Gloucester                                                             Duke of Sussex  
Duke of Cambridge                                                            Duke of Wellington  
Duke of Clarance                                                                Duke of Devonshire  
Duke of Lancaster                                                               Duke of Bolton  
Duke of Windsor[viii]                                                          Duke of Marlbrough

The Royal Dukes & Duchesses are addresses as, “Your Royal Highness”.  Non-Royal Dukes & Duchesses are addresses as “Your Grace”.

III.      Marquis/Marquies.  A Marquis is addresses as “My Lord” and the Marquies is addressed as “Your Ladyship’.  
IV.    
Earl/Countess.  An Earl is addresses as “My Lord” and the Countess is addressed as “Your Ladyship’.  
V.      
Count/Countess.  A Count is addresses as “My Lord” and the Countess is addressed as “Your Ladyship’.  
VI.    
Viscount/Countess.  The Viscount is addresses as “My Lord” and the Countess is addressed as “Your Ladyship’.  
VII.   
Baron/Baroness.  A Baron is addresses as “My Lord” and the Baroness is addressed as “Your Ladyship’.  
VIII. 
Baronet/Baroness.  A Baronet is addresses as “My Lord” and the Baroness is addressed as “Your Ladyship’.  

During the migration to America, those with titles above that of Knight, Sir, or Lady did not flee to the Colonies but to France.  Those families in the United States with ties to the English Royal families descend from the Knights, Sir, and Ladies that came to this country.

IX.     Knight/Sir/Lady.  They were addressed as Sir or Lady, respectfully.  
X.      
Gentry Class.  The Gentry class was made up from Cavaliers (2nd sons of the nobles), those with the title of Colonel, Sir, Lieutenant, and Sergeants.  


[i] Excerpted from Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia. Copyright © 1994, 1995 Compton ’s NewMedia, Inc.
[ii] Blacks Law Dictionary[iii] “Castles” created by Gallimard Jeunesse , Cartwheel Books, ©1990, p. 7
[iv]
“Castles of Europe from Charlemagne  to the Renaissance”, by William Anderson , Random House, New York © 1970 by Paul Elek Productions Limited, p. 75-76
[v]
“Hancock County Tennessee and its people, Vol. 2”, p. 80
[vi]
Blacks Law Dictionary
[vii]
Hancock County and its People, Vol. 2 1994”, p. 80
[viii]
Duke of Windsor, this title has only been used once and that was at the abdication of the king from the throne of England .

European Families

[Anjou] [Arundrel] [Baliol] [Beaumont] [Bellmonte] [Blois] [Bohun] [Brittany] [Bruce] [Burgh] [Charlemagne] [Clare] [Danish Vikings] [Flanders] [French] [Gallo-Romans] [Galloway] [German] [Gloucester] [Grelle] [Holand] [House of Valois] [House of Wessex] [Huntingdon] [Irish & Scots] [Longespee] [Ludlow Castle] [Mandeville] [Marshal] [Merovingian] [Meschin] [Mowbray] [Newmarch] [Norman-Plantagent] [Norway] [Quincy] [Ridelisford] [Riparian] [Roucy] [Salisbury] [Saxons] [Stapelton] [Sweden] [Vere] [Vermandois] [Warre] [Warrene] [West] [Zouche]


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