Paul I Romanov
, Czar of
In September 1815, an agreement was signed by
The Holy Alliance began to develop into a power that was used against progressive movements among all the peoples of
I Romanov, Tsar
He was known as “The Iron Tsar”, whose reigned from 26 Dec 1825 to 1855.
2c. Nicholas Romanov
2d. Michael Romanov .
2a. Alexander II Nicholoevich Romanov , Tsar of Russia, Tsar Nicholas I & Charlotte of Prussia , b. 1818; d. 13 Mar 1881; m 1st 1840 to Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt; m 2nd to Princess Catherine Yourievska .
He came to the throne in 1855 and ruled for 26 years. He is remembered in the Balkan countries as the “Liberator Czar”, because he led the Russian armies against Turkey in 1877, thus freeing some millions of Christians from Turkish rule. What distinguished his reign most was the freeing of more than 40,000,000 Russian serfs from slavery in which they were held by their landlords.
He established public and scientific schools, commenced a new judicial system, simplified civil and criminal procedure, and granted local self-government to some of the rural districts and large towns.
In 1881, he was killed by a bomb that was thrown by a revolutionist, who thought that Alexander was not proclaiming reforms fast enough. Oddly enough it was on the very day that he was killed, that he had signed the decree, which, if it had not been for his death, might have led to the establishment of a constitutional government in Russia.
Tsar Alexander II & Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt had eight (8) children:
2a1) Alexandra Alexandrovna Romanov
2a2) Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov
2a3) Alexander II Alexandrovich Romanov , Tsar of Russia
2a4) Vladimir Romanov , Grand Duke
2a5) Alexis Romanov , Grand Duke
2a6) Marie Alexandrovna Romanov, Grand Duchess
2a7) Serge Alexandrovich Romanov , Grand Duke
2a8) Paul Alexandrovich Romanov , Grand Duke
Tsar Alexander II & Princess Catherine Yourievska had three (3) children:
2a9) George Romanov
2a10) Olga Romanov
2a11) Catherine Romanov
2a3) Alexander III Alexandrovich Romanov , Czar of Russia, son of Alexander II Nicholevich Romanov , Czar of Russia & Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt, b. 1845; d. 1 Nov 1894, Livadia, Crimea, Near Yalta, Russia (a kidney ailment - nephritis); bur 19 Nov 1894m. 1866 to Tsarina Dagmar “Marie” of Denmark, daughter of Christian IX, King of Denmak & Princess Louise of Hesse-Cassel, b. 1847; d. Oct 1928, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Alexander III acceded to the throne in 1881 after the assassination of his father. reigned for 13 years, during which he fought successfully al movements for reform and persecuted those who disagreed with him in both civil and religious matters. His reign was characterized by police repression, industrial expansion and a shift away from their alliance with Germany to one with France. He made considerable progress under his autocratic rule, governing single-handedly. With the exception of Abdul Hamid of Turkey, he was the last of his kind.
His rule is marked by:
· the attempt to impose the Russian language on all his subjects;
· persecution of the Jews;
· restriction of education;
· a close alliance with France; and
· opposition to the Triple Alliance
He is described as being 6’4” tall. A giant of man, who was proud of his physical strength. It is said that he could tear a pack of cards in half and bend an iron poler over his knees and crush a silver rouble with his bare hands. He had expressionless eyes and moved in a peculiar and ungainly manner. Although he was pure German he had the appearance of a stubborn, enigmatic Russian peasant.
Alexander III & Marie of Denmark had six (6) children:
· Nicholas II Alexandrovich Romanov , Tsar of Russia, b. 1868; d. 1918; m. Alix of Hess , daughter of Louis IV & Alice , b. 1872; d. 1918.
· Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov
· George Alexandrovich Romanov , Grand Duke
· Xenia Romanov , Grand Duchess
· Michael “Mischa” Alexandrovich Romanov , Grand Duke
· Olga Alexandrovna Romanov , Grand Duchess
Nicholas II Alexandrovich “Nicky” Romanov, Tsar of Russia, son of Alexander III & Marie of Denmark b. 18 May 1868, Tsarskoye Selo, Puskin, Russia; d. 16 Jul 1918, Ekaterinburg, Russia; m. 26 Nov 1894, Winter Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia to Tsarina Alexandra Fedorovna “Alix” of Hess , daughter of Grand Duke Louis IV of Hess & Princess Alice Maud Mary , b. 6 Jun 1872, Darmstadt, Germany; d. 16 Jun 1918, Ekaterinbug, Russia.
Nicholas II was the Tsar of all the Russias, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, Tsar of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir. He was forced to abdicate in Mar 1917 and held captive by the Bolsheviks. He was took the crown on 6 May 1896. The Romanov’s were shot by Bolshevik soldiers in Ekaterinburg (now Sverdlovsk).
Alexandra was known as the Tsarina of Russia, Empress, Alicky, Alix of Hess e-Darmstadt, Pricess of Hesse-Darmstadt, Alix Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice, Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was named Alix after he mother Princes Alice of England. She was called “Sunny” by her mother. The name Alix is the closest germanic prounciation of Alice.
She is described as having red-gold hair. She was deeply religious and turned to a Siberian peasant monk, Gregory Rasputin (who was later murdered) as her spiritual advisor - primarily due to the hopelessness of the hemophilia suffered by her son Alexis.
Nicholas II & Alix of Hess had five (5) children:
· Olga Nicholovna Romanov , Grand Duchess, b. Nov 1895, Alexander Palace, Tsarskoe Selo, Russia; d. 18 Jul 1918, Ekaternburg, Russia - shot by Bolsheviks.
· Tatiana Nicholovana , Grand Duchess, b. Jun 1897; d. 18 Jul 1918, Ekaternburg, Russia - shot by Bolsheviks.
· Maria Nicholovna Romanov, Grand Duchess, b. May 1899; d. 18 Jul 1918, Ekaternburg, Russia - shot by Bolsheviks.
· Anastasia Nicholovna Romanov, Grand Duchess, b. Jun 1901; d. 18 Jul 1918, Ekaternburg, Russia - shot by Bolsheviks.
· Tsarevich Alexis Nicolaievich Romanov, b 12 Aug 1904, Peterhof, Near St. Petersburg, Russia; d. 8 Jul 1918, Ekaternburg, Russia - shot by Bolsheviks.
For Further Information See Denmark Connection