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Britain’s population was a group of pagans, known as
Celts. They were under the rule of
turned out to be a mistake on the part of the Brits.
Instead of just providing protection to them, the Saxons conquered
them. The Celts were pushed into
the western and northern areas of
was divided into seven (7) kingdoms by the Saxons.
The kingdoms within
of these kingdoms was ruled by it’s own king.
In 829, all seven (7) kingdoms were united by
were a total of eight (8) crusades:
1096 1st Crusade was led by Godfrey of Bouillon (later
King of Jerusalem); his two brothers,
awarded to theses individuals, descriptions can be found in the main text:
1066, William the Conqueror, invaded Britain and defeated ____ at the Battle
of Hastings. William was crowned
king of all England on 25 Dec 1066.
divided his conquered land among his followers.
He gave each man several small pieces of land in different areas of the
country. This was done so that no
one man could amass enough power, in one centralized location to overthrow
Norman rule feudalism developed. Yet,
some Saxon customs were retained, such as the appointment of Sheriffs.
There was a Sheriff appointed for each county.
It was his responsibility to collect taxes and to look after things for
1085, William ordered that an inventory be taken of everything in England and
what it was worth at that time and who owned it.
Among it’s pages are listed the values of such things as:
the noble’s horses, farming lands, teams of oxen, rivers, meadows,
woods, watermills; also listed were the number of people who worked for each
inventory which took a year to collect, is commonly known as the Domesday
Book. The Domesday Book provided
the first comprehensive look at life in Britain in 1085-1086.
was a social system of rights and obligations based on land ownership.
Each district was ruled by a duke, count, or other noble. The noble's
power was based on the land he held in feud.
The system of feudalism was established gradually, between the 8th and
11th centuries. Its beginnings can be traced to the breakup of the ancient
the ruins of the Roman Empire there arose small barbarian kingdoms.
Lacking a strong central government, each district had to look out for
itself. The inhabitants of the land were at the mercy of invaders and
marauding bandits. People
naturally sought the protection of their nearest powerful neighbor. In time of
trouble his wooden blockhouse or stone castle served as a refuge for both the
villagers and their flocks. The people had to pay for their protection. Money
was scarce, however the noble was very willing to accept land instead as
payment for protection. The former owner was allowed to use the land during
his lifetime, and at his death it passed into the hands of his protector.
time many nobles acquired more land than they were able to manage. They began
to grant land to tenants, this land was held in feud, and each holding was a
fief. The tenant thus became a vassal of the lord and took an oath to follow
him in war and perform other services. If a vassal failed to keep his
promises, he was supposed to forfeit the land. In time the fief became
hereditary, passing usually to the vassal's oldest son.
theory all land belonged to the king or emperor. He was overlord, of the
vassals who held land directly for him. France
was the land of its earliest and most complete development, but it was found
in all the countries of Western Europe, in some form or other. It reached
it’s peak from the 11th to the end of the 13th century.[i]
line of English Kings descends from Geoffrey
, the Plantagenet
, and ends with Richard II
Plantagenet line of kings founded the system of law and Parliament in England.
The Count Fulk V
Anjou and Henry I
1100-1135) settled the conflict between their two countries by having their
to Blacks Law Dictionary a knight[ii]
is “the next personal dignity after the nobility.
training of a knight began at the early age of seven, when he would be taken
from his father’s castle and sent to an overlord’s castle to learn the
arts of the knight. The skills
that he would learn included: horsemanship
managing his lance; becoming accustomed to the weight of armour; wielding the
great two-handed swords, axes and maces; participation in the physical
amusements of his lord, such as hunting and tournaments.
training would begin as a page. As page he would
learn to wait at the table, carve meat (a difficult and elaborate
accomplishment), attend to the ladies, and act as a personal servant.
From page he progressed to a squire
(at the age of 15). As a
squire, he learned the care of arms, horses, and attendance on knights in
battle or tournaments. After a
sufficient period of time he would then be dubbed a knight.
All that was usually required was a blow from one who was a knight.
The new knight would them display his talents in horsemanship and arms.[iv]
the knights there are several orders and degrees.”
There are several ranks of knighthood:
Knights of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter.
The highest order of English knighthood, ranking after the nobility.
This military order of knighthood is said to have been first instituted
by Richard I, at the
of Acre, where he caused twenty-five knights who firmly stood by him to wear
thongs of blue leather about their legs. This
order was later improved in 1344 and established on 23 Apr 1349 on the Feast
of St. George the Martyr, by Edward I
and 25 Knight Companions. The emblem is a garter of blue and gold embroidered
with the motto “Honi soit qui mal y
pense” - translation: Shame
to him who thinks evil of it. The
number of members to this order of knights is limited to
the original number of twenty-five.[v]
Sir Walter Blount,
of the Garter
Knights of the Bath
were so called from a ceremony of bathing the night before their creation.
This order was instituted by Henry IV, and revived by
Sir Andrew Windsor,
Knight of the Bath
the lowest, are yet the most ancient, order of knighthood.
We find that King Alfred
this order upon his son Athelstan
degrees of knights include:
Knights found within the lineage of Roger
knighted 22 May 1306 (unknown order)
THE MAGNA CARTA[vi]
Magna Carta (the great charter), granted by John
, King of England
, on 15 Jun 1215, to the barons, at Runnemede
[Runnemede lies between Windsor and Staines].
became one of the greatest documents in history. It is regarded as the
foundation of English constitutional liberty. Within its pages are found
provisions for regulating the administration of justice, defining the temporal
and ecclesiastical jurisdictions, securing the personal liberty of the subject
and his rights of property, and the limits of taxation, and for preserving the
liberties and privileges of the church. It
limited the power of the King and guaranteed that no Englishman could be
imprisoned without a trial. The
king’s power to tax was limited by the requirement that he consult with his
advisors prior to any increase in taxes. It
also was a pledge by the king that he would rule justly.
The Magna Carta was later, with some alterations, confirmed in
Parliament by Henry III and Edward I
There were twenty-five (25) signers of the MAGNA CARTA SURETY. Those who signed the Great Charter of King John swore to keep faithfully all the liberties and freedoms there in proclaimed and “to the best of their power, cause them to be kept by others.” Of the twenty-five signers of the Magna Carta Surety, only seventeen (17) have living descendants.[vii] Of those seventeen, the following are found among the ancestors of this compiler
Richard de Clare, Earl of Clare
ancestors of this compiler:
ancestors of this compiler:
William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke
the inhabitants of Britain. They
were darker in completion that the German peoples and they had black hair.
The Celtics were pagans. They
worshipped the trees, etc. At the
time of the Saxon invasion of Britain the Celts were pushed into the western and
northern areas of Britain (Deven, Cornwall, Wales, Scotland and Ireland).
Wales, Scotland and Ireland were considered the Celtic fringe.
The Celts were a creative, skilled at music, poetry, metalwork, and
textile making. The Romans were
amused by their custom of wearing pants or as the Celts called them
“breeches”. Normans are men from the North who arrived around 900 to
the area now known as Normandy in France. The
Normans were sometimes called Vikings. The
were warlike Germanic people who first settled along lower Rhine River as early
as 3rd century AD. Their kingdom
included the greater portion of territory that now forms Belgium, France, The
Netherlands, and western Germany. Vikings
are descendants of 4th & 5th century German Barbarians who moved North into
what is now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. By
the beginning of the 5th century their population had expanded so, that their
available resources were strained. There
was a need for “lebensraum” (living
space). They were known as
plunders. They ranged from the Bay
of Bisque to the European Mountains, from the Arctic Circle, South to Sicily.
No one was safe from them. The
Vikings, led by Leif Ericson
, had crossed the North Atlantic to North America
before 1000 A.D. The name of
Lombard means “langobards” or long beards.
This group lived in what is now present day Italy.
The German Tribes consisted of the Anglo,
Saxon, and Jutes. These tribes
were living on or near the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic around 400
English Royal Hierarchy
the top of the hierachial ladder we find the Royal Family.
Members of this family are addressed as “Your Royal Highness”.
This would be the King, Queen, Princes, & Princesses.
next level in rank would be the Dukes and Duchesses.
In the English royal family the first son is given the title of Prince of
Wales, Duke of Cornwall. Successive sons are awarded
Royal Duchies and those individuals who as
seen fit by the Royal family, are awarded Non-Royal Duchies.
Royal Dukes & Duchesses are addresses as, “Your Royal Highness”.
Non-Royal Dukes & Duchesses are addresses as “Your Grace”.
Marquis is addresses as “My Lord” and the Marquies is addressed as “Your
the migration to America, those with titles above that of Knight, Sir, or Lady
did not flee to the Colonies but to France.
Those families in the United States with ties to the English Royal
families descend from the Knights, Sir, and Ladies that came to this country.
were addressed as Sir or Lady, respectfully.
[i] Excerpted from Compton’s
Interactive Encyclopedia. Copyright © 1994, 1995
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